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Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Full Course - HVAC Course (Part 16)


                    This is part 16th of the full HVC course. You can access all the previous parts at the end of this post.

Ventilation Exhaust System Design

Ventilation System :

                Providing outside air or fresh air inside a space or room, to improve its indoor air quality thereby removing bad odor/exhaust gases from the space or room is known as ventilation or Ventilation system. Ventilation systems are of the following types :
* Kitchen Ventilation System
* Car Parking Ventilation System
* Toilet Exhaust Ventilation System

* Kitchen Ventilation System

Some examples of buildings with kitchens;
* Hotels ( 3 stars, 5 stars, 7 stars ).
* Restaurants
* Hospitals - Multispeciality hospitals ex, care.
* Canteens and Catering services
* Residences
* Commercial offices and centers
* Jails (Central Jails)
* Pantry car of the trains

Different systems that are to be designed for kitchens :
* Air conditioning systems
* Ventilation system
* Fire and safety systems
* Air distribution systems
* Refrigeration systems
* Foodservice and equipment system
* Building pressurization system, etc.

The basic purpose of kitchen ventilation:

- To provide a comfortable environment in the kitchen.
- To ensure the safety of people and building occupants by effective removal of effluents which may include gaseous, liquids, and solid contaminants produced in the cooking process and bi-products of fuel and combustion.
- Effluents can be life-threatening and flammable so it can be removed.

Effluent generation in kitchen

- Heat is a primary ingredient of kitchen effluent.
- 50 to 90% of appliance energy input is released in the form of the thermal plume (gas, odor). This plume also contains most of fuel generated effluents.
- Primary objective of kitchen ventilation is to capture and remove effluents, and the air that constitutes the plume through an exhaust-effective removal system.

Grease Extraction

- Without a proper filtration system, grease will collect at the exhaust plenum and duct, thereby creating a fire hazard and incurring cleaning costs or more maintenance costs.
- Without proper filtration of grease, it gets collected at the inside pans causing an unbalanced or improper flow of air or exhaust gases outside to the environment.
- Without proper filtration of grease, it creates an undesirable odor and smell in the kitchen.
- Without proper filtration, grease will collect on the rooftop of equipment and simultaneously pollute the environment too.

How can we ventilate our kitchen? Well, it just depends on your needs. Do you want a high-efficiency system that can save you money? Or do you need to control bad odors from cooking food?
                    Kitchen Ventilation is often overlooked as a method of HVAC system design, but it has quite a few benefits that can't be ignored. Kitchens are often overlooked areas of home construction that can be subject to some of the worst health issues that may arise from air quality problems in your home. These are areas where people spend the vast majority of their time, so it’s important that they are properly ventilated and cleaned regularly. Without proper ventilation and cleaning, kitchens can become breeding grounds for many types of airborne contaminants, including dust mites, mold spores, bacteria, viruses, and other allergens and pathogens. This can lead to respiratory conditions like asthma and allergies.

Here are four basic kitchen ventilation tips:

1. Ventilation should always be done correctly and efficiently. The best way to do this is through the use of ducted forced-air heating and cooling systems. When installing these systems in your home, make sure that they are installed properly. A poorly designed system may not effectively move and distribute air throughout the house, causing hot spots and stagnant pockets of air.

2. Make sure that your kitchen windows open at least 15 degrees on each side of the window frame. If you have central air conditioning installed, ensure that the registers are set at 20 degrees Fahrenheit above room temperature. This ensures that indoor air is constantly flowing out of the space and does not stagnate inside.

3. Also make sure that the kitchen has no gaps around the doors or walls. In fact, if there are any gaps, consider installing caulking to fill them in. Gaps allow outside air into the kitchen.

4. Lastly, make sure that you clean out debris from the vents daily. Even though this might seem like a tedious task, it is worth doing as the buildup of debris can cause moisture buildups behind the grates, leading to mildew and mold growth.

Kitchen Ventilation in HVAC - How Does It Work?

Kitchen ventilation is necessary for proper air quality, especially in spaces where food preparation takes place. This type of ventilation is usually done through exhaust fans that pull warm air out of the kitchen and expel it outside of the building. When this occurs, fresh air enters the space, which can reduce odors from cooking smells and grease fumes. There are 2 different ways that the cooling system operates to remove heat from your home. While the first method utilizes a series of tubes called a coil, the second uses a fan-powered blower unit to ventilate the building.

Kitchen Ventilation in Home Heating & Cooling Systems - Air Ducts

Air ducts are used throughout the house, including kitchens, to move conditioned air throughout the entire structure. These ducts consist of several types of materials, depending on their location and size. In small homes, these ducts may be made up of plastic, aluminum, fiberglass, or wood. Larger systems use steel or concrete. Indoor air travels down the inside of the ducts until it reaches its target area.

Kitchen Ventilation in Building Design - Ventilation Placement

The design and placement of exhaust vents within a room have an impact on the amount of indoor air pollution created. If the exhaust vents are placed at the top of the room, then they will draw in hot air from the bottom of the space. However, if they are placed along with the ceiling, then they will push out cooler air from the middle of the room instead.
                        Kitchen ventilation is a technique that allows air from outside into your kitchen. This can be done through several methods, including windows, vents, and fans. One thing to note about this method is that it will not always allow air inside, depending on how it is set up. If you are looking for a way to get fresh air into your home but do not want it to come in at certain times, then this can work well for you.
                    The kitchen is one of the areas that are not always designed well. When designing your kitchen, you should pay attention to how air flows through the kitchen space and make sure that you have enough exchange areas between the kitchen and living room. Because the kitchen has large openings, especially near the stove, you need to take extra care to ensure adequate airflow.

HVAC systems are used in residential and commercial buildings in order to make sure that indoor air quality (IAQ) is maintained at a high level. These units work by circulating the indoor air through filters, heat exchangers, evaporators, condensers, and compressors. There can be many different types of kitchen ventilation design in HVAC to go about improving your home’s airflow. This means that you need to have a good understanding of what works best and how you can improve these things.
                A system consists of a blower unit connected to an exhaust duct. A return duct is also installed, but this is not mandatory for all systems. You should know what type of ductwork you need based on where your kitchen is located, whether it is above or below grade, and if it is attached to any other areas like bathrooms or garages. The kitchen ventilation design is basically the size and configuration of the components and the location of each one. All parts, including fans, motors, and dampers, come in different sizes and shapes. It is recommended to use only those that fit your specific requirements.
                    Kitchen vents come in various designs and sizes. If you want to ensure that your kitchen is well ventilated, you can install some sort of ducting. Your options include a single wall duct or ceiling-hung ducts. Single wall ducts are ideal for a small area while larger ones are best suited for large spaces. Ceiling-hung ducts are less common than wall-mounted ones, but they offer better convenience and aesthetics. Wall-mounted fans are typically installed near the ceiling and provide adequate circulation. For instance, if you live in a house without a garage, installing a return duct could help you reduce the chances of moisture build-up inside.
                    Kitchen ventilation design includes two basic categories: supply and return. Supply refers to ventilating incoming fresh air into the room and returning stale air out. Return refers to recirculating the same air back into the space. Each area has its own requirements, so the supply/return section needs to be matched accordingly. You will find that the supply side is usually a larger portion than the return since most people will want enough fresh air coming into their space to meet their needs. When planning the distribution of the entire supply and return sections, remember that the supply section is the first thing that meets the occupant and the return section is the last thing to leave the space.

What are the requirements for a kitchen ventilating system?

Kitchen ventilating systems are usually installed in restaurants that utilize large amounts of hot air from cooking operations. A kitchen ventilating system provides fresh air supplies to the restaurant’s occupants while removing stale air. In addition, it may provide additional comfort to workers by circulating warm air around them. Kitchen vents are designed to handle higher than normal airflow rates, ranging from 500 CFM to 1,500 CFM. This type of venting system is needed because food-preparation areas generate high levels of dust, grease, moisture, and odors, which can easily build up over time and cause health hazards.
                The following criteria should be considered before selecting kitchen ventilation system equipment.

• Size – How much space do you need to install your ventilation system? If using a ductless model, how many outlets do you require? Is your installation going through multiple walls? These questions help determine the size of the ventilation system components you need to purchase.

• Capacity – Estimate what volume of air you need to move each hour. You might want to consider factors like where it is being used (atmosphere inside versus outside), whether it will work during peak hours, and if it has a recirculation feature.

The Kitchen Ventilation System (KVS) is the primary venting system that provides fresh air delivery to the food preparation area. There are many types of KVSs, but they can be divided into two categories: ducted and diffused. Ducted systems have large diameter metal pipes located above ceiling height with grills installed at intervals. Diffused systems use small fans mounted below overhead cabinets and shelves. Both types of systems provide adequate ventilation; however, ducted systems usually have higher rates of airflow.

In choosing between ducted and diffused ventilation systems, consider several factors. First, location in kitchens tends to dictate the type of system used. If the kitchen is located near an outside wall, then diffused ventilation is typically used. This allows for easy access to clean fresh air. Also, if the kitchen has multiple sources of heat, such as a steam oven or microwave oven, then diffused ventilation may not work well. In this case, ducted ventilation should be used. However, if the kitchen is located far away from the main heating vents, ducted ventilation may not work well due to excessive noise. Therefore, diffused ventilation would be a better choice.

Another factor to consider when choosing between ducted and diffuse ventilation systems is the need for cooling. If the kitchen is equipped with an electric range, then a diffused ventilation system would be appropriate. This allows for an even flow of fresh air through the whole cooking surface while preventing hot air from escaping out of the room. Conversely, a ducted ventilation system would be best suited for a kitchen without electric ranges. A ducted ventilation system removes stale air from beneath the cabinetry while providing fresh air to the cook tops.

Finally, consider the size and layout of your kitchen. The amount of space required to install each type of ventilation system varies greatly. Ducted ventilation systems require a great deal of space above the countertops, whereas diffused systems allow for maximum expansion. You should choose the system that works best for your needs.

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