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Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Full Course - HVAC Course (Part 32)


                            In this Part of the Full HVAC course, We are going to learn everything about Split Air Conditioners.

Split Air Conditioners

1. What does a Split AC do?

A split air conditioner (or a mini-split) is an air conditioner installed inside a window frame instead of being hung on a wall. Its purpose is to provide additional cooling capacity where air conditioning alone wouldn't be enough. These units are great because they don't take up much space and allow the area around them to be completely open, unlike a traditional system where the unit takes up a lot of the room. If the weather conditions are mild and you need a little extra cooling, these are perfect.

2. How do they work?

One of the great things about a split air conditioner is how simple it is to use; once you've set it up correctly, it's really easy to switch between different modes: Cool, Heat, Off. When you're out shopping for one, make sure you look at those options and choose what works best for your situation. You'll want something that will keep the temperature down low while still providing some relief from the heat. Your house might have a single zone system that runs on a timer, but if you're looking for flexibility, then look for a three-zone option.

3. Where should I put it?

You'll want to place your split air conditioner in a spot where there isn't a lot going on. Ideally, it would be somewhere quiet where people aren't constantly going in and out of the room, but if you live in a busy city apartment building, you might not get to pick exactly where you install it. Just make sure it doesn't block any doorways or windows or cause noise issues. Also, think about placement based on how much square footage you have. A smaller area may require a fan-less model, whereas a larger area could benefit from a split AC that uses fans and ducts to circulate cool air throughout the home.

4. Do they cost a lot?

Split air conditioners are affordable, depending on their size and features. There are many brands of split systems that offer great quality at a reasonable price, so you should definitely shop around until you find the right fit for your specific needs.

5. Which ones are good for me?

There are two types of split air conditioners that work well for small spaces and apartments: fan-cooled models and blower-only models. Fan cooled models have both heat exchangers and fans to move the air, making them ideal for a small apartment. Blower-only models function solely off of the air moving through them, which means they won't create a drafty feeling in your home. Both types of models can be installed either horizontally or vertically, so you're free to arrange them however you'd like.

Air conditioning systems consist of three major components including blower, compressor, evaporator, condenser, and fan/motor. The air conditioning system provides fresh air inside the house by blowing out hot air (or cool air) outside the house. The cooling effect of these air-conditioning systems is achieved when warm air passes over a cold surface, causing its temperature drops, thus resulting in water vaporization. The air conditioning system consists of a compressor, condensing unit, and evaporating coils connected to each other via a refrigerant pipeline. Refrigerant fluid is circulated throughout the system using an electric motor. Split ACs have been widely accepted and become popular among people owing to their durability and high efficiency. Split AC’S are manufactured in various sizes and capacities to suit the requirement of individual homes. These types of air conditioners are also referred to as split mini-split air conditioners. In general, split air conditioners use less electricity than central AC units, however, they do not provide the same cooling performance.

Condensing units

A typical condensing unit includes a compressor, evaporator coil, and expansion valve. Condensing unit is designed to produce dehumidified air. The compressor compresses the refrigerant gas that enters the condenser unit. After passing through the evaporator coil, the compressed refrigerant releases heat into the surrounding environment. This latent heat released by the refrigerant causes evaporation of the moisture contained in the air. An Evaporative cooling system helps in removing humidity from the air. After releasing heat into the surroundings, the refrigerant undergoes a phase change at the expansion valve. The refrigerant gas then expands due to a reduction in pressure. Expansion of the refrigerant decreases the density of the gas. This decrease in density reduces the volume of the refrigerant gas. Due to this decrease in the volume of the refrigerants, the refrigerant becomes a liquid.

The liquified refrigerant flows through the return tube and enters the evaporator coil where it absorbs heat from the environment. Cooled air is produced once the refrigerant evaporates due to absorbing heat from the environment.

Refrigerant cycle

An R22 refrigerant cycle uses ammonia as a lubricant. A typical R22 refrigerant cycle consists of four major components namely compressor, condensing unit, expansion device, and evaporator.


It is basically an impeller-driven rotating cylinder containing two sets of intermeshing fingers that pushes the gas through the suction port and expels it through the discharge port. Generally, compressors are mounted horizontally on the horizontal axis. However, vertical mounting is possible if required. Rotary compressors are commonly used compressors.

Evaporator coil

An evaporator coil is installed on the bottom side of the condensing unit. An evaporator coil is a metal tube that contains several parallel tubes, forming a serpentine pattern. The heat exchange takes place between the refrigerant circulating inside the tubes and the ambient air. Since the tubes are arranged horizontally, the heat exchanger acts as a flat plate.

Expansion device

This is also known as a capillary tube. As the name suggests, it is a small diameter tubing placed across the expansion valve. The purpose is to reduce the pressure difference before the refrigerant reaches the evaporator coil. Without the expansion valve, the pressure of the refrigerant would be higher when compared to the evaporator coil. Thus, the difference in pressure results in a loss of efficiency.

Return tube

It is simply a steel tube, which carries the excess refrigerant back to the compressor. After returning to the compressor, the refrigerant enters the low-pressure chamber of the compressor. The refrigerant then returns to the compressor again.

Efficiency rating

The efficiency rating denotes the capability of the cooling device to transfer heat. Efficiency varies according to the type of device and design. Most modern split air conditioners have an efficiency rating between 90% and 95%.

Air conditioning units (AC) have been utilized for many years in order to reduce the temperature of the interior of a building. The basic principle behind how these systems work is to remove excessive heat from inside the building via air movement. As a result, AC units are generally considered to be effective in reducing the total amount of heat generated within a room. However, conventional AC systems do not provide any control over airflow rate. In addition, they are prone to developing inefficient operation due to dirt accumulation and/or lack of maintenance.

Split-type air conditioning system is a type of air conditioning system where individual cooling fans are split between two rooms separated by a wall or partition. Split AC units are useful, especially in small spaces and in places where installing a whole unit would be too costly. Split air conditioners offer several advantages including the following:

• More precise temperature control

• Reduced power consumption

• Higher efficiency

• Lower sound levels

• Less noise pollution

• Efficient use of space

An air conditioning unit is the name given to machines designed to eliminate unwanted heat from a room. Most often found in commercial buildings, they are able to operate at a lower cost than central heating systems. Air conditioners are commonly found in homes and offices, although some larger businesses may also utilize them.

A split air conditioning system works by having each side of a house have its own independent air conditioner. These separate units are connected to each other using ducting so that cool air flows through one set of vents while warm air flows through the other. Usually, each section contains four to six air conditioners. If you are looking for a way to save money and improve the comfort level of your home, then choosing a split AC system could be the perfect solution.

A typical split AC unit consists of three major components: compressor, condenser coil, and evaporator coil. The compressor compresses refrigerant gas which is circulated throughout the entire system. The coils serve to trap the heat from a passing stream of air and release it outside the home or office. The compressor makes sure that the unit operates efficiently and effectively.

The first step toward operating a split AC unit is to install a thermostat. This regulates the flow of hot and cold air throughout the system. Depending on the model, the thermostat can adjust the temperature of both sides of the split AC simultaneously or only one side of the split AC.

When selecting a brand of split AC, make sure that it is rated high enough to handle the volume of air that passes through it. Ideally, each side should be able to handle around five cubic feet of air per minute. The capacity will depend on the size of the home or office where the split AC is installed.

Because split AC units are smaller and less expensive than traditional central air conditioning systems, they are easier to maintain and repair. Split AC systems are also quieter and consume less electricity.

Parts of Split Air conditioner

Air conditioning is a system that uses refrigeration to remove moisture, humidity, and heat from a conditioned space. There are two types of commercial split air conditioners available, single-stage and multi-stage systems. Single-stage units can cool one room at a time whereas multistage units can cool multiple rooms simultaneously. Multistage units have three basic parts: evaporator coil, condenser coil, and compressor. These three components work together to create cooling power. A blower circulates the cold air throughout the building. Air entering the house travels past the coils (evaporator and condenser), where it absorbs heat. As heat passes over the coils, it condenses into liquid water. Any excess liquid drains back into the indoor unit, while warm air escapes out of the top vent. Cooled air then flows back into the house through return vents.

Evaporator Coils/Heat Exchangers

The evaporator coil is the heart of a single-stage air conditioner. Without proper cooling, the entire unit becomes useless. The evaporator coil contains fins in the shape of a spiral tube. Water flowing through the coil picks up heat and turns into vapor. Vapor enters the compressor and is compressed into superheated high pressure gas. The resulting hot gas is forced through the condenser coil. The condenser coil is placed outside and exposed to the elements. Its job is to release the hot gas into the atmosphere. If the condensate does not drain properly, the compressor will stop working properly. An electric fan blows air across the coil surface to ensure even transfer of heat.

Condenser Coils/Heat Sinks

The condenser coil is the second major component of a multistage air conditioner. The condenser coil consists of round pipes wrapped around copper tubes. Cold air blowing over the condenser coil transfers heat to the surrounding environment. As long as the air is moving, heat can travel from the inside coil to the outside coil. Heat is transferred to the ground, to trees, to the sky, and eventually to the ocean. When the temperature of the condenser coil exceeds 90°F, the air conditioning unit stops functioning. Condensation drains into small reservoirs located near the bottom of the outdoor unit.


A compressor compresses vapors from the evaporator coil into a dense stream of high-temperature gas. The compressor is powered by electricity and its function is to increase the amount of pressure in the system. Compressors are designed differently depending on whether they are fixed or variable speed. In a variable speed compressor, the motor runs continuously to keep the pressure constant. A fixed speed compressor shuts off after a certain length of time to prevent overheating.


A cabinet houses the various components of the air conditioning system. Cabinets vary in size and shape according to what type of system they house. All cabinets have an opening for the connection of pipes and wires. A typical cabinet is rectangular with rounded corners. Cabinets are often made of aluminum and stainless steel.


Fans blow the cooled air throughout the home or office. Blowers are found in both air conditioning units and heating equipment. Fans can either run continuously at different speeds or stop completely to regulate airflow.

Capillary Tube

A capillary tube is a hollow metal tube connected to the suction side of the compressor. Capillary tubes are made of plastic and are designed to carry liquid-free air from the compressor to the evaporator coil.


Air Conditioner Split Heater - Air conditioning units have two distinct parts. The first and primary part is the compressor (also called condenser). Compressors compress refrigerant gas into a liquid state. This liquid flows through a coil located inside the unit where it absorbs heat from the surrounding area. The heated liquid flows back to the compressor and becomes compressed again. The cycle repeats until the desired temperature is achieved. A second circuit travels through the evaporator. In the evaporator, the warm air is cooled down, thus extracting heat from the room.

An air conditioner splits the airflow into two circuits, one for cooling and the other for heating. The cooling circuit typically consists of a compressor, condenser coil, expansion valve, and evaporator coil. The heating circuit contains similar components except no evaporator coil is used. The difference between these two circuits is that the heating circuit uses a blower fan to force air over the heater coil, whereas the cooling circuit does not require any fan at all since the ambient air is naturally drawn through the evaporator coil. Once the desired temperature has been reached, the control panel sends power to the circuit in need of cooling. If the system operates as a heater, then the fan switch will close and power is sent to the heating circuit only.

How does a split air conditioner work? - How do split air conditioners work? Well, they use two different circuits with their own fans to cool or heat a given area. Each circuit has its own compressor. The compressor in the cooling circuit creates pressure in the refrigerant line, causing the gas to change to a liquid state. After passing through the condenser coil, the liquid refrigerant moves into the expansion valve, which reduces the pressure and changes the liquid to a vapor state. The refrigerant now passes through the evaporator coil and gets rid of additional heat, thus cooling the area below the coil. The same thing happens in the heating circuit except the opposite occurs. The refrigerant is forced through the heater coil and becomes hot enough to release moisture from the atmosphere. As the refrigerant exits the heater coil, it condenses into a liquid state, ready to pass back through the compressor.

The working of Split Air Conditioners(HVAC)

Air conditioning is a mechanical device that circulates and cools the air inside homes and buildings using refrigerants. Refrigerants are gases that undergo phase changes from liquid to gas or vice versa. In the case of an air conditioning system, these refrigerants take on the role of cooling the circulating air inside the building. The evaporator coil absorbs heat from the circulated air while the condenser coil dissipates that heat into the surrounding environment. However, many people do not know how split air conditioners work and what exactly they do. Let’s discuss some of its working principles.

What happens when we turn on our AC?

When you turn on an air conditioner, the compressor starts humming. When the compressor runs, it pulls electricity from the power grid and converts it to mechanical energy. The electrical current heats the compressor fluid, causing it to boil, thereby producing pressure. This causes the compressed gas to expand, changing from a dense liquid state to a gaseous state. As the gas continues expanding, the temperature drops dramatically, leading to a loss of thermal energy. A fan then sucks out the hot air and pushes it over the evaporator coil where it gets cooled down. Once the cold air passes over the evaporator coil, it enters the home/building via ductwork. The cooled air flows back into the house/building and returns to the compressor, repeating the cycle. If the compressor stops running, the evaporator coil cools off until the ambient temperature around it rises again.

Why does AC stop functioning at certain temperatures?

Depending upon the type of air conditioner, the temperature range of operation may vary. There are two types of air conditioners – split and packaged units. Split air conditioners are known to be less expensive than packaged ones, however their operating temperature range is smaller as compared to packaged ones. Package units operate efficiently between 10°C and 25°C, whereas split units operate efficiently between 5°C and 30°C. You need to ensure that the unit operates within the specified temperature range. If the unit fails to function properly, try adjusting the thermostat setting. Also, make sure that the unit is plugged in correctly and that the circuit breaker is switched off.

How does the evaporator coil work?

An evaporator coil consists of a series of tubes that carry water vapor from the outside to the interior of the home. These coils transfer moisture from the air to the water, as the water vapor becomes saturated with water molecules. Depending upon the temperature difference between the indoor air and the outer surface of the evaporator coil, the moisture will either freeze or steam depending on whether the temperature is above or below 32°F (0°C). This phenomenon is called dehumidification.

Where does the heat go after being transferred from the evaporator coil?

The heat generated by the evaporator coil gets transferred to the condenser coil, where it is dissipated into the atmosphere. Condensation occurs when the evaporator coil reaches room temperature. This results in water droplets falling on the cold surfaces of the condenser coil and freezing. These frozen droplets of water fall to the bottom of the condenser coil, making coils much cooler. As the water droplets melt, they release latent heat which means that the coil heats up, thus completing the cooling cycle.

Why should I use a proper filter for my air conditioner?

Filtering makes sure that only clean, filtered air goes into the air-conditioning system. Dirty particles like pollen, dust, pet hair, etc., get trapped by the filter before entering the system. After passing through the filter, it enters the evaporator coil, reducing the efficiency of the air conditioner. Most air filters have three layers: 1: Porous paper 2: Activated charcoal 3: Coarse mesh screen 4: Fiberglass mat.

What happens if the filter becomes clogged?

If the filter becomes clogged, it reduces the airflow and increases the amount of humidity in the air, resulting in condensation problems. To prevent this problem, you can change your filter regularly.

Different Types of Split ACs

Wall Mounted Split ACs

The best way to cool down any room whether its winter time or summer time is to have a wall mounted split AC unit. These units use less power and work much harder than traditional window AC units. You don't even need to worry about opening windows because they have their own fan motors. What's great about these units is that they can do double duty. If you want to open the windows you just turn off the fan motor, if you want to close them you simply turn back on the fan motor. Wall mounted split air conditioners are not only more effective at cooling rooms but they also look great. Most of the smaller ones aren't big enough to fit in standard refrigerators yet still have plenty of space for fans. This means that they're perfect for small spaces such as kitchens and bathrooms.

A split air conditioner is an air conditioning system that splits its refrigeration units between inside and outside of the room. This type of unit does not require ductwork and therefore it is much easier to install. Split air conditioning systems can either be wall mountable or freestanding. Wall mountable split air conditioners can only be mounted to walls that have the right thicknesses while freestanding ones can be set anywhere. Freestanding models require less space than their wall-mount counterparts. There are several advantages to using split air conditioners over conventional air conditioning units including lower cost and higher efficiency. The cost advantage comes from the fact that split air conditioners do not need as many parts as conventional units, thus reducing material costs. In addition, they consume fewer watts than conventional units; hence, saving electricity bills. Efficiency is increased due to the reduced size of the compressor.

Floor Mounted Split ACs

A floor mounted unit is considered superior to a window installation, especially if the room does not have windows. A simple explanation is that an open window unit would allow moisture to enter the home, while a closed system keeps the air inside the house dry. You may want to consider installing a ceiling mount unit if the room does not offer enough space for a floor mounted unit. Ceiling mounts are best suited for small rooms where the height of the air handler does not make it awkward to install a unit over the ceiling.

Ceiling cassette split ac

Designed specifically for use in commercial applications, the CSA is a compact unit capable of delivering high-volume airflow at low noise levels. It features a powerful motor and a self-cleaning impeller that keeps the air moving throughout the system regardless of the amount of debris being generated. The CSA is ideal for growing environments where space is restricted, but still requires effective ventilation. As a result, it is widely popular among growers who desire to achieve a high level of productivity without sacrificing comfort or aesthetics. This unit comes equipped with two filters that remove particles down to 0.03 microns, ensuring the cleanest airflow possible. The CSA is designed to provide the following performance characteristics:

- High airflow capacity

- Low noise level

- Easy installation

- Long service life

Ceiling Cassette Split Acs are used to provide maximum air circulation without having to go through the hassle of installing ductwork, thus saving money. A properly installed ceiling system provides greater airflow than standard exhaust systems. These systems have two components. The first is a fan/duct assembly mounted at the top of the wall studs. The second is the exhaust unit, which connects to the bottom of the wall studs via flexible tubing. Ceiling cassettes are specifically designed to allow the use of the fan/duct mounting assembly in conjunction with the exhaust unit. The mounting bracket allows the fan to direct the flow of air throughout the room while the exhaust directs the hot air out through a vent that connects to the attic.

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